According to archaeological data, property differentiation became more and more noticeable.

According to archaeological data, property differentiation became more and more noticeable.

As part of the Scythian state, which was formed in the late VI century. BC, in addition to the Iranian-speaking Skolts, included peoples of different origins.

In Scythian society it is already possible to find signs that indicate the decomposition of the tribal system. From among the free community members – nomadic pastoralists and settled farmers – tribal nobility (tribal elders, tribal leaders, etc.) stood out. According to archaeological data, property differentiation became more and more noticeable. Appear in the Scythians and slaves, whom they extracted during numerous wars and campaigns. However, the role of slave labor among the Scythians was insignificant. The success of the Scythians in hostilities was largely due to the presence of the most perfect weapons for the time.

Their strike force was cavalry. The main means of the Scythian warrior was armor, although ordinary leather jackets were also used. He had a battle belt and a shield, his head was protected by a helmet. The war horse was also protected. The main weapon was a small folding bow.

The standard of economic life of the population of Scythia at that time was quite high. The dominant position in the economy was occupied by arable farming and cattle breeding. Scythian plowmen sowed bread not only for their own needs, but also for sale. The land was cultivated with the help of an ox-drawn plow, the harvest was harvested with iron sickles, and the grain was threshed in grain graters. Huge herds of cattle and herds of horses were owned by Scythian nomads. Leather production, weaving, and so on were also very successful in Scythian society. Trade with the coastal Greek cities developed intensively. The Scythians brought here bread, cattle, furs, slaves and other goods, and in return received wine, precious pottery, jewelry. As a result, strong and wide trade ties were established between the Scythians and the Greeks.

Shifts in economic life became the basis for the emergence of property inequality and social differentiation. The foundations of the tribal structure in Scythian society were undermined by the growth of private property, property inequality, and the development of slavery. As a result, from the total mass of free farmers and pastoralists stood out the ruling elite, which included the royal family, military aristocracy, warriors, rich merchants. It was in them that the main wealth was concentrated.

The most numerous strata of Scythian society were free community members. They served in the military, paid tribute, and performed various duties.

The lower rung of the social gradation of Scythian society was occupied by slaves. The main source of slavery among the Scythians – captivity, conquest of neighboring peoples. But as already noted, slavery did not play a decisive role.

Excavations of burials, especially grandiose mounds of the Scythian nobility, known in the literature as “royal”, give a clear idea of ​​the social stratification and class structure of Scythian society. In such mounds archaeologists have found a strong force of gold and jewels, expensive pottery, rich weapons and so on. A sharp contrast to the “royal” mounds is the burial of simple Scythians under low earth mounds with a modest set of things or no inventory at all.

Thus, we can conclude that the Scythians created a high material culture. It absorbed the achievements of local tribes, advanced civilizations of the East, the Caucasus and especially Greece, and later Rome. In turn, Scythia had a significant impact on the economy, social order, material culture, ideology of the agricultural population of forest-steppe Ukraine. At the same time, prolonged exploitation depleted the economic resources of the Forest-Steppe, and this became one of the main reasons for the death of Scythia.

Ancient city-states of the Northern Black Sea coast

Ancient cities-states of the Northern Black Sea region played an important role in the history of Ukraine. As an organic part of ancient civilization, they were formed and developed in close cooperation with the local Black Sea population. The latter for a whole millennium felt the influence of high ancient culture, which found its expression in the acceleration of their socio-economic and cultural development.

There are two main periods in the history of the ancient city-states of the Northern Black Sea Coast:

The first covers the time from VI to the middle of the I century. BC and is characterized by a relatively independent life based on Hellenic traditions and peaceful relations with the Scythian tribes. The second falls in the middle of the first century. BC – 70s of the IV century. AD, when city-states gradually fell into the sphere of interests of Rome and, moreover, were subjected to constant destructive attacks by the Goths and Huns.

In the process of ancient colonization in the Northern Black Sea region, four main centers were formed:

The first is the coast of the Dnieper-Bug and Berezan estuaries. In the first half of VI century. BC on the right bank of the Bug estuary, near the confluence with the Dnieper estuary, natives of Miletus laid Olbia – later one of the three largest ancient Greek cities of the Northern Black Sea coast, its convenient geographical location contributed to the establishment of close trade ties with and nomads of the Steppe. The second center of ancient civilization of southern Ukraine was formed near the Dniester estuary, where the cities of Nikon and Tire. The third center was formed in the South-Western Crimea. The main city here is Chersonesos Tavriya. The fourth center of ancient culture in the northern Black Sea region emerged on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas. The cities of Pantikapaion, Theodosia, and Phanagoria were built here.

The Greek colonies of the northern Black Sea coast were slave-owning polises, which in essence differed little from the metropolis.

An important place in the economic life of Olbia, Chersonese and other cities was occupied by agriculture and livestock. For example, Olbia had its own agricultural area – a choir, where its inhabitants could grow bread and vegetables, graze cattle. The inhabitants of the settlements surrounding Olbia were also engaged in farming and cattle breeding. Fishing was very developed in the coastal areas.

Chersonese from the very beginning developed as a center of agricultural production. The inhabitants of the city owned a significant agricultural area. The west coast of Crimea, which the Chersonese called the “plain”, was the granary of Chersonese, which supplied the city with grain. The territory in the extreme southwest of the Crimea, now called the Heraclius Peninsula, was divided into a large number of clergy plots of 25-30 hectares. Claire was a plot of land with a fortified estate, usually consisting of a house, various outbuildings, a water tank. Gardens were viticulture, but the clergy also included gardens, pastures and fields.

Craft production played a significant role. Thus, great success was achieved by Olbia masters in the manufacture of metal products cast from bronze or copper, mirrors, jewelry, statuettes, which were often made in the “Scythian animal style”. In Olbia developed ceramic production, jewelry, woodworking, weaving and other crafts. Metallurgical, jewelry, and textile enterprises operated in Chersonesos. Various ceramics were produced. Chersonese handicrafts were sold not only in the city itself, but also outside it – in the Scythian settlements of the Crimea.

Black Sea urban centers conducted intensive overseas trade. The main item in the trade balance (except for Chersonesos) was the export of bread. In addition, merchants sold to Greece and then to Rome cattle, leather. Salt, fish, fish products were exported. Slaves were a common commodity. In turn, these cities imported wine and olive oil from Greece, various metal products and weapons, fabrics, marble and wood products, luxury goods and art.

Greek cities had a high culture. Stone houses, temples, theaters decorated with sculpture, painting and mosaics were built here. There were stone pillars in the streets with official texts carved on them.

The onslaught of northern tribes on coastal cities in the last centuries BC and the first centuries AD pushed these policies under the protectorate of Rome. The Roman occupation of the Black Sea and the incorporation of most cities into the Roman Empire could not significantly change the situation, as the Romans saw these cities only as a source of food and slaves, as transfer points in trade and diplomatic relations with the ” barbarian world “.

In the III century. AD colonies on the territory of the Northern Black Sea coast are entering a period of general economic and socio-political discord, which led more than a hundred years later to their final demise. The greatest blow to the city came from the Gothic and Hun tribes.

In the IV century ceased to exist as a city-state of Olbia. Chersonese, although it survived, but came under the rule of the Byzantine Empire. Known as the city of Korsun, it was destroyed by the Golden Horde invaders in the middle of the XV century. The same fate befell Pantikapaion and Theodosia.

Thus, the ancient multi-ethnic population of the territory of present-day Ukraine has passed in its development all the main formation stages: Stone (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic), Copper-Stone, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age. Each of these stages created its own type of socio-economic organization of life: the original Paleolithic and tribal communities, tribal structure, class society https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/.

Of particular importance for the historical progress of these lands was the era of ancient civilization of the Northern Black Sea coast. Therefore, it is not surprising that these territories of historical ties were later taken over by Kievan Rus.

01.10.2011

Economic Thought of Ancient China. Abstract

The economic thought of ancient China arose and developed within the framework of contemporary philosophical and political teachings.

The main directions of ancient Chinese public opinion were Confucianism, Legism, Taoism and Moism, which were formed in the IV-III centuries. BC For centuries, there has been a sharp controversy between these areas about the economic system of society, community, its historical destiny, the degree of state intervention in the economic life of the country and methods of governing it. The leading trend was Confucianism, which, having become a state ideology, had a great influence on the socio-economic and political development of China for almost two millennia.