It is characterized by the transformation of international relations from a bipolar to a monopolar system.
Due to the improvement of transport operation, the branches of the national economic complex of the regions, on the territory of which the highways will pass, will be accelerated. Possibilities of on-site processing of products with its delivery to the consumer in the corresponding commodity kind will expand. However, it should be borne in mind that transport has a detrimental effect on the environment. These are, first of all, toxic emissions into the air, pollution of lands, surface and ground waters, and increasing noise.
The creation of the ITC national network should significantly reduce the negative impact of motor transport on the surrounding areas. This will be achieved through a significant improvement in traffic conditions, reduction of road congestion, the implementation of certain environmental measures on new highways and increasing the level of service for drivers, passengers and vehicles.
Ensuring favorable traffic conditions on highways, more uniform speed, elimination of delays and unjustified changes in traffic will significantly reduce harmful emissions into the air.
Moreover, ITCs will require a significant improvement in the quality of engines and the use of only high-quality fuel for them. Sedimentation tanks and water treatment facilities will be built on the highways of transport corridors.
By laying highways outside settlements, regulating buildings in their area, compliance with relevant rules and parameters in the construction of residential and industrial buildings, you can significantly reduce the harmful effects of noise from traffic. Highways located near settlements will be equipped with anti-noise structures.
The construction and operation of transport corridors in the areas specified in the Concept is provided by the relevant enterprises subordinated to the Ministry of Transport of Ukraine.
Coordination of works on construction and operation of new expressways will be carried out by the open joint-stock company "Ukrainian Transport Corridors".
The construction of the new transport network will be carried out on a competitive basis with the involvement of mostly non-state funds, primarily private (including foreign) capital under the control and participation of the state. The latter provides the conditions for raising capital, guarantees its return and profit, creates an appropriate legal and regulatory framework.
New highways are transferred for use to shareholders who have invested in their construction for a period not less than that required for the return on investment and profit. Therefore, travel on these roads will be paid.
One of the priority conditions for attracting transit cargo flows for their passage through Ukrainian territory is an effective tariff policy that takes into account the constant changes in international requirements. Unfortunately, the existing tariff rules and conditions in Ukraine, as well as the system of other fees and charges for international transportation do not yet meet these requirements and require qualitative changes.
That is why, despite the low general tariffs for transportation, the final transport costs due to additional payments are quite high and largely repel consumers of transport services.
The creation and operation of a network of transport corridors is regulated in international practice by several hundred different regulations, technical documents, conventions, requirements, standards, etc. Ukraine has approved only part of these documents (about 25 of the 50 main ones).
Ukraine’s international transport network and existing transportation systems in the context of economic transformation require fundamental changes in operational and technological activities, as well as the replacement of technical means and equipment.
The main requirements in these matters are:
maximum reduction of transportation costs; reassessment of criteria in approaches to determining the efficiency of transportation, the transition from volume indicators of transport to financial and economic; ensuring sufficient speed of transport and delivery of passengers and goods; ensuring the safety of goods during transportation; improving the quality of transport services.
The issue of accelerated passage of transport through checkpoints at the state border is probably the most difficult in international transportation. To solve it, it is necessary to build a new infrastructure of checkpoints at the state border, which would meet international standards.
There are 12 road, 11 railway and 3 checkpoints in sea and river ports on the routes of transport corridors. Among cars, only the Krakovets checkpoint, built in 1997, fully meets all international requirements and standards without exception. Other checkpoints require significant reconstruction and construction of new infrastructure.
May 14, 2011
Ukraine’s priorities in the process of gaining NATO membership for the future. Abstract
Ukraine’s integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures is, of course, the main strategic goal of the state. Today, Ukraine is seen as a "support and generator of stability and security in Europe." It is seen as a strategic chain between the West and the East, the North and the South, a unique strategic partner of the European Union and a special partner of NATO.
The problems and interests of Ukraine related to Euro-Atlantic integration outlined above logically lead to the question of the path and procedures for gaining NATO membership. The answer to this question requires determining the conditions for membership in the Alliance, the motives and needs of NATO in the accession of certain new members.
To a large extent, the expansion of the Alliance is conditioned by the logic of the organization’s development, the transformation of its function and strategic priorities. Since NATO’s inception, its history has been divided into two major periods.
The first historical period of the organization’s existence dates back to the Cold War, when the Alliance was an extremely important structural component of the bipolar world, or rather the bipolar confrontation. It was this logic of the Cold War that determined the procedure and motives for admitting new members to NATO: Greece and Turkey joined in 1952, the Federal Republic of Germany in 1955, and Spain in 1982.
The Alliance’s need for new members was driven primarily by military-strategic interests, motivated by bloc confrontation with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. In this context, Greece and Turkey formed NATO’s advanced south-eastern flank. The geostrategic location of these countries significantly limited the Soviet Union’s influence on the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Spain was also of great military and strategic importance in terms of the base of NATO’s advanced forces.
Germany was at the epicenter of the military confrontation, was its front. It is no coincidence that the most extensive military infrastructure, on which the largest military group of NATO forces was based, was located on its territory. The Bundeswehr provided a significant portion of the Alliance’s total combat potential.
But along with the military-strategic interests, the accession of each country was conditioned by certain political needs of NATO, the main of which from the very beginning was the need to protect democratic values. In the 1950’s, the threat of authoritarianism hung over Greece.
Turkey at the time was threatened with transformation into a theocratic Islamic state. NATO membership has made it possible to consolidate its secular system and keep it in the fairway of European orientation. Germany’s accession to the Alliance was largely due to the efforts of Western democracies to prevent the resumption of German revanchism in that country. Spain’s accession to NATO was dictated by the difficult process of liberation from the legacy of the totalitarian regime of Franco.
The young Spanish democracy needed political support from the Alliance. Thus, these motives and the logic of the Cold War determined the procedure for joining NATO, outlined in Articles 10 and 11 of the Washington Treaty. Article 10 states that "The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State capable of implementing the principles of this Treaty and promoting security in the North Atlantic Treaty to accede to this Treaty.
Any State so invited may become a Party to this Agreement by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America shall notify each Party of the deposit of any such instrument of accession. https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ "
The instrument of accession, as referred to in Article 11 of the Treaty, must be an instrument of ratification, which is evidence that the candidate country has ratified the Treaty. Thus, accession includes a mandatory procedure for its ratification by parliament in accordance with the relevant constitutional procedures.
Thus, the basic requirements for inviting a country to join NATO under the Washington Treaty are:
geographical location of the country: it must be a state of the European continent; ability to implement democratic principles, devotion to them; the ability to contribute to collective defense and contribute to the security of the North Atlantic region.
The ratification of the Treaty by a candidate country is a mandatory procedure for joining NATO.
The second historical period of the Alliance’s existence can be described as post-bipolar. It is characterized by the transformation of international relations from a bipolar to a monopolar system. It is under the influence of this trend that NATO is being forced to transform significantly, primarily due to the reduction of the traditional Cold War military threat and the emergence of new "soft threats", some of which, including terrorism, are becoming global. Such changes in the international environment are forcing NATO to shift its focus from purely defense to non-security issues.
In this historic period, NATO is taking on a new role due to the unsuitability of the mechanisms that guarded security in an age of bipolar world, causing regional instability and local conflict. Internal instability often leads to the reproduction of authoritarian regimes.