Surprisingly, the image of the granddaughter of Santa Claus is unique
Under Alexander II, “old Ruprecht”, Saint Nicholas or “Grandfather Nicholas” are mentioned.
☞ The emergence of the modern image of the New Year character took place in the 30s of the XX century.
☞The residence of Father Frost is located in Veliky Ustyug, which is located 450 km north-east of Vologda.
☞ In the estate of Santa Claus there is a dressing room where embroidered sheepskin coats, boyar hats, felt boots, summer caftans and even a ski suit are kept.
☞Ded Moroz’s mail really works – it is located in the center of Veliky Ustyug, next to his city residence. It is here that letters from those who write to Santa Claus come. If the Lapland reserve is not indicated on children’s letters to Santa Claus, then they are delivered to Veliky Ustyug.
☞ The Veliky Ustyug Father Frost has no twins.
☞If Santa Claus moves across the sky on a reindeer sleigh, then Santa Claus prefers not to leave the ground. His transport is a troika of horses and a sleigh with bells.
☞The first mentions of the Snow Maiden can be found in Russian folklore – this is a girl named Snezhevinochka. A.N. told about the girl made of snow. Afanasyev in the book “Poetic views of the Slavs on nature.”
☞ The Snow Maiden has “matured” in the tale of Ostrovsky, who created a story about the daughter of Frost and Spring, melted from the sun’s rays.
☞ Among her relatives is grandmother Zima, an uncle named Morozko – the spirit of winter, which, according to legend, walks with a magic club and draws patterns on the windows. The Snow Maiden also has distant relatives. Bannik – the spirit of the Russian bath, brownie and even Baba Yaga.
☞Snegurochka’s birthday has recently been celebrated on the night of April 4-5.
☞ The Snow Maiden also has an official residence – this is a tower in the center of Kostroma. And they write letters to her in the same way as to Santa Claus. Ded Moroz and Snegurochka have their own residence in Belarus. It is located on the territory of the National Park “Belovezhskaya Pushcha”.
Surprisingly, the image of the granddaughter of Santa Claus is unique. There is nothing like this in the New Year and Christmas mythology of other countries.
For example, in Italy, the good fairy Befana helps to give gifts to children, although outwardly she rather resembles our Baba Yaga.
The Dutch Sinterclass is accompanied by Black Peter. This character is somewhat frightening: behind him is a sack with gifts for obedient children, and in his hands is a rod for naughty children.
Czech Santa Claus Miklaus is accompanied by two characters: an angel in snow-white clothes and a shaggy imp. The first one distributes sweets, and the second one – boring potatoes.
On February 8, Russian scientists celebrate their professional holiday. The date is associated with the Academy of Sciences founded 295 years ago.
On the eve of the Day of Science, the Russian Academy of hamlet tragic hero essay Sciences, the Russian Chemical Society named after D.I. Mendeleev, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, Russian and foreign scientists came up with an initiative to hold the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements.
The UN General Assembly supported this initiative and 2019 was declared the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. This large-scale event is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the discovery of the Periodic Law of Chemical Elements by the great Russian scientist D.I. Mendeleev.
The editorial staff of the portal “Russian Education” recalled the history of the formation of the periodic table and interesting facts related to its discovery.
In search of a unified concept
It took more than one century for the unsuccessful search of scientists from all countries to find a pattern among chemical elements. The researchers tried to “fit” them into the existing schemes, which, of course, did not bring the desired results. Mendeleev was sure that there is a general law of nature, which is associated with the mass of the atom and determines all the similarities and differences of elements among themselves.
Soviet publicist Oleg Pisarzhevsky describes the scientist’s work in this way:
“He helped the success of his search with a simple and visual technique. He used a supply of unnecessary business cards – narrow strips of cardboard. From these cardboard cards he made something like a movable filing cabinet of elements. On the back of each card, he wrote down under the name of the element its atomic weight and the formulas of the main compounds that this element forms with others. Having laid out these cards in front of him, combining them in all possible combinations, comparing them among themselves according to the properties of the elements, he could with great ease encompass with his mental gaze the entire set of elements with all the complex interweaving of their properties. The signs of the system, to which all this motley heterogeneous collection of earthly bodies was subordinated, were more and more clearly manifested in his consciousness.
Many legends were written around the scientist’s discovery. One of them – the famous table, Mendeleev dreamed of. It’s hard to believe that scientific discoveries can be made so easily. Mendeleev only laughed at the absurdity of this assumption.
“I’ve been thinking about it for maybe twenty years, but you say: I was sitting and suddenly … it’s ready!” He commented.
Pisarzhevsky wrote about this:
“Mendeleev really recalled more than once how he spent hours rearranging the elements in the rows, reading his notes to the ripples in his eyes. His head was spinning with exertion. After all, when light cards with the names of substances were shifted from place to place, whole echelons of information about these substances came into motion in the mind of the researcher. And even when, exhausted, he fell asleep for his reflections, restless, sleepless thought continued to beat in the researcher’s brain. And it is quite possible that at the very moment when more superficial, interfering stimuli were inhibited by sleep, the observation that had been prepared by years of work and was already taking shape in consciousness took shape freely and completely.
In 1869, the table had empty cells. Mendeleev deliberately left empty spaces for new elements, which, according to his assumption, were to be found in the future. Based on the properties of the “neighbors” on the periodic table, the scientist even fairly accurately described three undiscovered elements. And soon the free cells were occupied by gallium, scandium and germanium.
The appearance of radium
For many years, the periodic table was supplemented with new elements. On December 26, 1898, Nobel Prize laureate in physics Pierre Curie presented radium in the form of a mixture with barium at the French Academy of Sciences. Together with his wife Maria, they received a highly radioactive element, radium, from the waste remaining after the separation of uranium from uranium ore.
At that time, no one knew about the deadly danger of radiation, and the new element was made a panacea for almost all diseases. Radium has been included in foods, toothpaste, and face creams. It has been recommended by doctors as a stress reliever. And the rich sported watches, the dial of which was painted with paint containing radium.
Today, this element is used in medicine for short-term radiation in the treatment of a number of malignant diseases.
“False elements”: nebulium and coronium
Some chemical elements did not fit into the concept of the periodic law and were declared non-existent. So at the beginning of the 20th century it happened with nebulium and coronium.
While studying the solar atmosphere, astronomers found spectral lines that they could not identify with any of the chemical elements known on earth. Scientists have suggested that these lines belong to a new element called coronium (because the lines were discovered while studying the Sun’s “corona” – the outer layer of the star’s atmosphere).
A few years later, astronomers made another discovery by studying the spectra of gaseous nebulae. The discovered lines, which again could not be identified with anything terrestrial, were attributed to another chemical element – nebulium.
The discoveries were criticized, since there was no room for elements with the properties of nebulium and coronium in the periodic table. After testing, it was found that nebulium is the usual terrestrial oxygen, and corium is highly ionized iron.
Dmitry Mendeleev believed that “the future does not threaten the periodic law with destruction, but only promises superstructures and development.” His invention is still universally recognized as the basic law of chemistry.
There are only a few months left before the start of the examination campaign, and it’s time to remember how the USE differs from the OGE, the GIA from the GVE, and also what the abbreviations KIM and PPE mean.
The portal “Russian Education” presents an attestation dictionary for graduates, their parents and teachers.
The official designation of the most important event of the certification campaign is the state final certification for compulsory programs of basic general education (GIA-9) and secondary general education (GIA-11).
GIA-11 is conducted in the form of the Unified State Exam (USE) and the State Final Exam (GVE-11), GIA-9 – in the form of the Basic State Exam (OGE) and the State Final Exam (GVE-9).
Unified State Exam
The unified state examination is a form of state final attestation; it serves simultaneously as the final exam at school and the entrance exam to the university.